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1.Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD).
2.Epidemiological data by Dialysis Outcomes Practice Patterns Study (DOPPS) showed that patients with CKD and hyperphosphatemia who have maintained their phosphate level close to normal for _______ months have lower mortality levels.
3. What is the normal range for serum phosphate?
4. Which of these play a role in phosphate homeostasis?
5. Which of these processes do not play a role in phosphate maintenance?
6. Calcification in what area most indicates risk of cardiovascular events and mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients?
7. What is the criterion recommended by the KDIGO Working Group as screening for vascular calcification in patients?
8. Vascular calcification is a(n) _____ process that is driven partly by _____cells, which are sensitive to changes in ______.
9. Vascular calcification essentially turns the walls of blood vessels into bone.
10. According to the literature, what percentage of patients struggle with maintaining their phosphate level below 1.58 mmol/L?
11. According to the literature, on average, dialysis patients take _______ phosphate binders daily.
12. Which of these phosphate binders creates an environment conducive to the development of vascular calcification?